No 10, Issue 2       



Evaluating indicators contributing to government effectiveness in 12 MENA regions between 2012 to 2022: employing a longitudinal data analysis

Kadir Aden DIRIR

Pages 19-41



Examining government effectiveness has not been easy, as every country possesses its own specific framework, making it harder to assess effectiveness. therefore, the following paper aims to inspect several indicators contributing to government effectiveness. Despite previous papers investigating effectiveness, most of them utilized the aforementioned variable as an independent. Hence this article will evaluate factors that promote effectiveness rather than how effectiveness impacts them, while simultaneously focusing exclusively on the MENA region. Interestingly the region scores negatively according to the world bank development, particularly in government effectiveness, consequently making it a potential topic. A panel data was applied to the 12 selected MENA countries from the period of 2012 to 2022, just after two years of the Arab spring, therefore expecting some extent of development in several societal sectors. According to the results, GDP pc, RQ, and women in parliament (WIP) all have a significant positive effect at the level of p<3.42, p<0.495, and p<0.007, respectively. Similarly, the random effect model shows a significant positive value for GDPpc, RQ, and WIP, coinciding with fixed effect results. On the other hand, voice & accountability, and political stability reveal insignificant results, despite being positive. Moving to the OLS regression model, we included the control of corruption to check if the inclusion of the aforementioned factor increases government effectiveness in the MENA region, interestingly all variables increase government performance in the 12 MENA regions except voice and accountability, while a decrease in political stability (PV) affects government performance.


Regional studies; Government effectiveness; MENA countries; panel data; Control of corruption; Women in parliament; regulation quality



Acemoglu, D. J. S. &. R. J. A., 2001. The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation. American economic review, pp. 91(5), 1369-1401.

Aisen, A., & Veiga, F. J, 2013. How does political instability affect economic growth?. European Journal of Political Economy, pp. 29, 151-167..

Alam, M. R., Kiterage, E., & Bizuayehu, B, 2017. Government effectiveness and economic growth. Economic Bulletin, , pp. 37(1), 222-227..

Alesina, A., Özler, S., Roubini, N., & Swagel, P, 1996. Political instability and economic growth. Journal of Economic growth, pp. 1(2), 189-211..

Alkebsi, A., Brown, N. J., & Sparre, C, 2017. Reconstructing the Middle East: Political and Economic Policy.. s.l.:Taylor & Francis.

Al-Tal, R., 2021. The impact of government effectiveness and political stability on energy consumption in the selected MENA economies. International Journal of Energy Economics and .

Asongu, S. A., & Nwachukwu, J. C, 2017. The impact of terrorism on governance in African countries. World Development, pp. 99, 253-270..

Avellaneda, C. N., 2009c. Municipal performance: does mayoral quality matter?. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, pp. 19(2), 285-312.

Avellaneda, C. N., 2016b. Government performance and chief executives’ intangible assets: Motives, networking, and/or capacity?. Public Management Review, pp. 18(6), 918-947.

Ayachi, F., & Berthomieu, C., 2006. Les déterminants des investissements directs étrangers européens et la gouvernance dans la région MEDA: une estimation par la méthode des moments généralisés. In Colloque du GDR CNRS” EMMA”(Economie Méditerranée Monde Arabe). In: sur le thème” Le partenariat euro-méditerranéen: Construction régionale ou dilution dans la mondialisation”. Istanbul, Turquie: Université de Galatasaray, Istanbul, pp. (pp. 26-27).

Barro, R. J., 1998. Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study. s.l.:MIT Press Books.

Baskaran, T., Bhalotra, S. R., Min, B. K., & Uppal, Y, 2018. Women legislators and economic performance. s.l.:s.n.

Behn, R. D., 2003. Why measure performance? Different purposes require different measures. Public administration review, pp. 63(5), 586-606.

Boserup, E., Tan, S. F., & Toulmin, C, 2013. Woman’s role in economic development.. s.l.:Routledge.

Bovens, M., 2007. Analysing and assessing accountability: A conceptual framework. European law journal, pp. 13(4), 447-468..

Brooks, N., Adger, W. N., & Kelly, P. M, 2005. The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Global environmental change, pp. 15(2), 151-163.

Chen, L. J., 2013. Do female politicians influence public spending? Evidence from Taiwan.. International Journal of Applied Economics, pp. 10(2), 32-51..

Choi, S. W., 2010. Fighting terrorism through the rule of law?. Journal of Conflict Resolution, pp. 54(6), 940-966..

Clots-Figueras, I, 2011. Women in politics: Evidence from the Indian States. Journal of public Economics, pp. 95(7-8), 664-690.


Dahlberg, S., & Holmberg, S, 2012. Understanding Satisfaction with the Way Democracy Works, Gothenburg: Quality of Government Institute.

Debski, J., Jetter, M., Mösle, S., & Stadelmann, D, 2018. Gender and corruption: The neglected role of culture. European Journal of Political Economy, pp. 55, 526-537.

DiRienzo, C. E., 2019. The effect of women in government on country-level peace. Global Change, Peace & Security, pp. 31(1), 1-18..

Dirir, S., 2022. Macroeconomic Determinants of the National Debt in Djibouti: An ARDL Approach. International Journal of Economics Finance and Management Sciences, pp. 10. 250-257.

Duho, K. C. A. M. O. &. M.-S. J., 2020. Determinants and convergence of government effectiveness in Africa and Asia. Public Administration and Policy.

Efobi, U., & Asongu, S, 2015. Terrorism and capital flight from Africa.. nternational Economics, pp. 148, 81-94.

Emara, N., & Jhonsa, E., 2014. Governance and economic growth: interpretations for MENA countries. Journal of Development and Economic Policies, p. 16(1): 47–71.

Esarey, J., & Schwindt-Bayer, L. A. , 2019. Estimating causal relationships between women’s representation in government and corruption. Comparative Political Studies, pp. 52(11), 1713-1741..

Fakih, A., Haimoun, N., & Kassem, M, 2020. Youth unemployment, gender and institutions during transition: evidence from the Arab Spring. Social Indicators Research, pp. 150(1), 311-336..

Fernández-Arias, E., & Hausmann, R, 2000. The new wave of capital inflows: sea change or just another tide?. Inter American Development Bank Working Paper, , p. 415.

Fox, J., 2009. Accountability Politics: Power and Voice in Rural Mexico, Oxford University Press.. Bulletin of Latin American Research, pp. 28(3), 463-464..

Fredriksson, P. G., & Svensson, J, 2003. Political instability, corruption and policy formation: the case of environmental policy. Journal of public economics, pp. 87(7-8), 1383-1405..

Frey, B. S., 2018. Economics of Happiness. In: New York, NY: Springer International Publishing.

García-Sánchez, I. M., Cuadrado-Ballesteros, B., & Frías-Aceituno, J. V, 2016. Does media freedom improve government effectiveness? A comparative cross-country analysis.. European journal of law and economics, pp. 42(3), 515-537..

Globerman, S., & Shapiro, D, 2002. Global foreign direct investment flows: The role of governance infrastructure. World development, pp. 30(11), 1899-1919.

Goldsmith, A. A., 1987. Does political stability hinder economic development? Mancur Olson’s theory and the Third World.. Comparative Politics, pp. 19(4), 471-480..

Guisan, Maria-Carmen & Neira, Isabel, 2006. Direct and Indirect Effects of Human Capital on World Development. Applied Econometrics and International Development, pp. 6. 17-34.

Hall, R. E., & Jones, C. I, 1999. Why do some countries produce so much more output per worker than others?. The quarterly journal of economics, pp. 114(1), 83-116.

Han, X., Khan, H. A., & Zhuang, J, 2014. Do governance indicators explain development performance? A cross-country analysis. A cross-country analysis. s.l.:Development Bank Economics Working Paper Series, (417).

Helliwell, J. F., & Huang, H, 2008. How’s your government? International evidence linking good government and well-being. British journal of political science, pp. 38(4), 595-619.

Holmberg, S., Rothstein, B., & Nasiritousi, N, 2008. Quality of government: What you get. Annual review of political science, pp. 12, 135-161.

Huther, J., & Shah, A., 1998. Applying a simple measure of good governance to the debate on fiscal decentralization. s.l.:World Bank Publications.

Huynh, K. P., & Jacho-Chávez, D. T, 2009. Growth and governance: A nonparametric analysis. Journal of Comparative Economics, pp. 37(1), 121-143.

Ingraham, P. W., & Moynihan, D. P., 2001. Beyond Measurement: Managing for. Quicker, Better, Cheaper?. Managing Performance in American Government, p. 309.

Jeriansyah, W., & Mappanyukki, R, 2020. The Effect of Accountability and Transparency of Regional Financial Management on Local Government Performance. International Journal of Asian Social Science, pp. 10(12), 721-729..

Jha, C. K., & Sarangi, S., 2018. Women and corruption: What positions must they hold to make a difference?. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, pp. 151, 219-233.

Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Mastruzzi, M, 1999a. Governance matters. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., Lora, E., & Pritchett, L, 2002b. Growth without governance. Economia, , pp. 3(1), 169-229..

Kepramareni, P. &. P. S. O., 2021. The Effect of Accountability, Responsibility, Independence, and Fairness on the Performance of Klungkung LPDs. sia Pacific Journal of Management and Education (APJME), pp. 4(2), 65-73.

Khouya, M., & Benabdelhadi, A., 2020. Good Governance And Its Impact On Economic Development: A Systematic Literature Review. International Journal of Accounting, Finance, Auditing, Management and Economics, pp. 1(1), 47-67.

Kobeissi, N., 2005. Impact of governance, legal system and economic freedom on foreign investment in the MENA region. Journal of Comparative International Management, , pp. 8(1), 20-41.

Kraipornsak, P., 2018. Good governance and economic growth: An investigation of Thailand and selected Asian countries., 6(1), 93-106: Eurasian Journal of Economics and Finance.

Kukutschka, R. M. B., 2018. Anti-corruption strategies for authoritarian states. U4 Helpdesk Answer, pp. 7, 1-18.

Kurtz, M. J., & Schrank, A, 2007. Growth and governance: Models, measures, and mechanisms. The Journal of Politics, , pp. 69(2), 538-554..

Laver, M., & Shepsle, K. A, 1998. Events, equilibria, and government survival. American Journal of Political Science, pp. 28-54..

Lehkonen, H., & Heimonen, K., 2015. Democracy, political risks and stock market performance. Journal of International Money and Finance, pp. 59, 77-99..

Levi, M., 1996. Social and unsocial capital: A review essay of Robert Putnam’s Making Democracy Work. Politics & Society, pp. 24(1), 45-55.

Lipset, S. M., 1959. Some social requisites of democracy: Economic development and political legitimacy1. American political science review, pp. 53(1), 69-105.

Millimet, D. L., Roy, S., & Sengupta, A, 2009. Environmental regulations and economic activity: Influence on market structure. Annu. Rev. Resour. Econ, pp. 1(1), 99-118.

Mlambo, V. H., & Dlamini, M, 2019. Conflict and violence in Africa in the 21st century: Where is the African Union? A case of Libya, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Central African Republic.. Journal of Public Affairs, pp. 19(4), e1939.

Odilla, F., 2017. Building up a convenient accountability: How the ‘anti-corruption’law in Brazil was put into force’. In 2017. Congress of the Latin American Studies Association.

Osho, A. E., & Afolabi, M. B, 2014. The effects and effectiveness of Accountability and Transparency in Government Sectors. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), pp. 16(4), 46-54..

Petrovsky, N., & Avellaneda, C. N, 2014a. Mayoral public sector work experience and tax collection performance in Colombian local governments. International Public Management Journal, pp. 17(2), 145-173.

Qian Z, L. X., 2014. Environmental regulation, industrial structure adjustment and regional economic development. [J]. Econ, p. 07:73–81.

Quibria, M. G., 2006. Does governance matter? Yes, no or maybe: Some evidence from developing Asia. Kyklos, pp. 59(1), 99-114..

Rainey, H. G., & Steinbauer, P., 1999. Galloping elephants: Developing elements of a theory of effective government organizations.. Journal of public administration research and theory,, pp. 9(1), 1-32.

Salahodjaev, R., & Jarilkapova, D, 2020. Women in parliament and deforestation: cross-country evidence. Journal for Nature Conservation, pp. 55, 125830..

Setiawan, H. E., & Safri, M, 2016. Analisis pengaruh akuntabilitas publik, transparansi publik dan pengawasan terhadap kinerja satuan kerja perangkat daerah di Kabupaten Bungo.. Jurnal Perspektif Pembiayaan dan Pembangunan Daerah, pp. 4(1), 51-72.

Setiyanningrum, I., 2017. The Effect of Accountability, Transparency, and Supervision on Budget Performance with the Concept of Value For Money in Regional Owned Enterprises (BUMD) in Yogyakarta. Profita Journal: Study of Accounting Science, p. 5(3).

Siqueira, K., & Sandler, T, 2007. Terrorist backlash, terrorism mitigation, and policy delegation. Journal of Public Economics, pp. 91(9), 1800-1815..

Terman, J. N., & Feiock, R. C, 2015a. Improving outcomes in fiscal federalism: Local political leadership and administrative capacity. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, pp. 25(4), 1059-1080.

Terman, J. N., & Feiock, R. C, 2016b. The effect of formal and informal contracting mechanisms on implementation performance in the US federalist system. Local Government Studies, pp. 42(2), 309-331.

Tobor, J., 2016. Terrorism or clamor for resource control: An analysis of Nigeria’s Niger Delta militants. Journal of Terrorism Research, pp. 7(3),23–34..

Uddin, M. A., Ali, M. H., & Masih, M, 2017. Political stability and growth: An application of dynamic GMM and quantile regression. Economic Modelling, pp. 64, 610-625.

Webber, D. J., & Allen, D. O., 2010. Environmental Kuznets curves: mess or meaning?. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, pp. 17(3), 198-207.

Williams, L. K., Koch, M. T., & Smith, J. M, 2013. The political consequences of terrorism: Terror events, casualties, and government duration. International Studies Perspectives, , pp. 14(3), 343-361.

Winkelmann, R., 2014. “Unemployment and happiness”. IZA World of Labor , pp. Vol. 94, pp. 1-5.

Wooldridge, J. M., 2010. Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data. s.l.:MIT press.

Yilmaz, B., Levent, A, 2015. Impact Econ. freedom, political Stab. Econ. growth USA Emerg. Asian Econ.



Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.