Rong Kang BO

No 11, Issue 1       


Geography, Region, Space: The Evolution And Reflection Of Geopolitical Theory


Rong Kang BO

Pages: 21-38



This paper compares the development of geopolitical theories and divides them into three categories according to their characteristics: offensive, defensive, and normative. Time is a dimension that must be considered in any theory. This paper argues that geospatial characteristics and national development methods determine the changes in geopolitical competition, and force’s effectiveness is an intervention variable. The three variables lead to the evolution of geopolitical theory from conflict to defence to institutional cooperation. The emergence of virtual spaces such as the Internet has changed the contradiction between limited geographical space and unlimited national development in geo-competition and provided an opportunity for geopolitical theory to break through power theory. The complexity of the geo-environment that countries face when participating in geo-competition determines the necessity of establishing a united geopolitical view. This paper divides a country’s diplomatic environment into three categories: geo-environment, regional environment, and space environment. Distinguishing these three environments can help to think about the focus of a country’s foreign strategy. The country must make a difference in the geo-environment, be active in the regional environment, and work hard in the space environment.


geopolitical evolution, geographical environment, national development model


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