Anyaeze, No 8, Issue 1

   (2020) No 8, Issue 1  

The Burden of International Obligation and Responsibility in Granting Amnesty to Boko Haram by the Nigerian State

 

Regis Chima ANYAEZE

Pages: 31-48

Abstract

In 2013, the Nigerian government declared Boko Haram a terrorist organi­zation, prompting some other states to do the same. The United Nations (UN) has also declared Boko Haram a terrorist organization and regards it as the third deadliest terrorist group in the world thereby convincing others in the international community to treat the sect as a dangerous terrorist group. The prolonged presence of Boko Haram and its brazen and ruthless attacks on innocent citizens has given rise to suggestions to negotiate with, and grant amnesty to Boko Haram as a means to end the human and material casualties arising from the activities of Boko Haram in Nigeria. The paper aims to screen the international implications of granting amnesty to Boko Haram by the Nigerian state. For these reason, aspects of the current global war on terror are highlighted, especially the in­ternational regimes enacted by the UN to combat international terrorism and their implications for amnesty to Boko Haram in Nigeria.

Keywords

Boko Haram, International terrorism, Security, Responsibility, Obli­gation

 

References

 

Abraham, M (2008) What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counter Terrorism Strategy. International Security 32(4): 86-89.

African Union Peace and Security (2015a): The AU and LCBC sign an agreement for the operationalization of the MNJTF. For instance, 21 October. Available at:  http://www.peaceau.org/en/article/the-au-and-the-lcbc-sign-an-agreement-for-the-operationalization-of-the-mnjtf, (accessed on June 16, 2020).

African Union Peace and Security (2015b), The meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Defence on the Security Situation in Nigeria and the “Fight against Boko Haram.”, 20 January. Available at: http://www.peaceau.org/uploads/bh-mtg-niamey-20-1-2015-mofa-mtg.pdf, (accessed on June 15, 2020).

Aljazeera (2020) 92 Chad soldiers killed in ‘deadliest’ Boko Haram attack. Aljazeera News, 25 March. Available at: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/03/92-chad-soldiers-killed-deadliest-boko-haram-attack-200325010212370.html (accessed on June 15, 2020).

Amnesty International (2015) Boko Haram at a glance. Amnesty International News, 29 January. Available at – https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/01/boko-haram-glance/ (accessed on June 15, 2020).

Amnesty International (2019) Nigeria 2019. Amnesty International Reports. Available at – https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/nigeria/report-nigeria/ (accessed on June 2020).

Anneli Botha & Mahdi Abdile (2019) Reality Versus Perception: Toward Understanding Boko Haram in Nigeria. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 42:5, 493-519, DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2018.1403152.

Anyaeze, R. C (2020) Terrorist Framework and Inclination: The Behavourial Pattern of Boko Haram in Nigeria. International Relations and Diplomacy XXX, 8(1) doi: 10.17265/2328-2134/2020.0X.001

BBC News (2013), Nigeria’s Boko Haram rejects President Jonathan’s amnesty idea. BBC Africa, 11 April, available at https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-22105476 (accessed on March 20, 2020).

Blin, A and Chaliand, G (2007) The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ezeanokwasa, J.O, et al (2016) Religious freedom and its limitations under the 1999 constitution of Nigeria. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence, 7: 55-68.

Farooq Kperogi (2018) Amnesty for Boko Haram? That’s unconscionable!. International Centre for Investigative Reporting (ICIR), April 28. Available at https://www.icirnigeria.org/amnesty-for-boko-haram-thats-unconscionable/ (accessed on March 3, 2020).

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (2020), Country Profile: Nigeria. Available at: https://www.internal-displacement.org/countries/nigeria  (accessed on June 15, 2020).

International Court of Justice (1949), Corfu Channel (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland v. Albania). Third Judgment rendered on 15 December 1949. Available at: https://www.icj-cij.org/files/case-related/1/001-19491215-JUD-01-00-EN.pdf (accessed on June 15, 2020).

Iro, A and Osumah, O (2012) The Boko Haram Uprising: How Should Nigeria Respond?. Third World Quarterly 33(5): 853–869.

Iyekekpolo, W.E (2016) Boko Haram: Understanding the Context. Third World Quarterly 37(12): 2211–2228.

Khan, A (1987) A legal theory of international terrorism. Connecticut Law Review. 19: 945-972.

Kperogi, F (2018) Amnesty for Boko Haram? That’s unconscionable!. Daily Trust, April 28. Available at: https://www.dailytrust.com.ng/amnesty-for-boko-haram-thats-unconscionable.html (accessed on June 15, 2020).

Nwodo N (2020) Amnesty for Terrorists confirms Buhari shares same Ideology with Boko Haram – Ohaneze Ndigbo. The Nigeria Voice TNV, February 23. Available at: https://www.thenigerianvoice.com/news/285440/terrorism-amnesty-for-terrorists-confirms-buhari-shares-s.html (accessed on June 15, 2020).

OHCHR (2008) Human Rights, Terrorism and Counter-terrorism, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Fact Sheet No. 32, Chapter 1. Printed at United Nations, Geneva. Available at: https://www.ohchr.org/documents/publications/factsheet32en.pdf  (accessed on June 15, 2020).

Olabanji A (2015) Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: Between Poverty, Politics and Islamic Fundamentalism.  African Security 8(1): 1–29.

Olalekan A (2018), Buhari offers repentant Boko Haram members amnesty. Punch Newspaper, March 23. Available at https://punchng.com/breaking-buhari-offers-repentant-boko-haram-members-amnesty/ (accessed on March 20, 2020).

Oluwaseun T (2018) Boko Haram Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: The Soft Power Context. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 53(6): 815-829.

Onapajo, H and Ufo Okeke Uzodike, U. O (2012) Boko Haram terrorism in Nigeria: The International dimension. South African Journal of International Affairs. 19(3): 337-357.

Onapajo, H and Ufo Okeke Uzodike, U. O (2012) Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria: Man, the State and the International System. African Security Review 21(3): 24–39.

Onuha, Freedom C (2010) The Islamist challenge: Nigeria’s Boko Haram crisis explained. African Security Review, 19(2): 54-67.

Oriola, T.B & Akinola, O (2018) Ideational Dimensions of the Boko Haram Phenomenon, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 41:8, 595-618, DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2017.1338053

Sahara Reporter (2013) Arewa Youths Urge Northern Governors To Grant Amnesty To Boko Haram. Sahara Reporter. New York, March 22, Available at  http://saharareporters.com/2013/03/22/arewa-youths-urge-northern-governors-grant-amnesty-boko-haram (accessed on March 3, 2020).

Sändig, J (2015) Framing Protest and Insurgency: Boko Haram and MASSOB in Nigeria. Civil Wars 17(2): 141–160.

Solomon, H (2012) Counter-Terrorism in Nigeria: Responding to Boko Haram. The Russi Journal. 157(4): 6-11.

Soyinka, W (2012) Next Phase of Boko Haram Terrorism-The Sahara Reporters, Interviews February 6, 2012. Available at: http://saharareporters.com/2012/02/06/interview-wole-soyinka-next-phase-boko-haram-terrorism-thenews (accessed on June 15, 2020).

United Nations (1970), Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, 24 October 1970, A/RES/2625(XXV). Available at: https://www.un.org/ruleoflaw/files/3dda1f104.pdf (accessed on June 15, 2020).

United Nations (1994), Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism, UN General Assembly Resolution A/Res/60/49. Available at: https://undocs.org/en/A/RES/49/60 (accessed on June 15, 2020).

United Nations (1998) General Assembly, Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (last amended 2010), 17 July 1998, ISBN No. 92-9227-227-6. Available at: https://www.icc-cpi.int/resource-library/documents/rs-eng.pdf (accessed on June 15, 2020).

United Nations (2001a), Resolution 1373, S/RES/1373 (2001), Adopted by the Security Council, on 28 September 2001. Available at: https://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/terrorism/res_1373_english.pdf (accessed on June 15, 2020).

United Nations (2001b), Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its fifty-third session (23 April–1 June and 2 July–10 August 2001), Official Records of the General Assembly, Fifty-sixth session, Supplement No.10 (A/56/10). Available at: available at http://www.un.org/law/ilc/ (accessed on June 15, 2020).

United Nations (2002) Responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts: resolution / adopted by the General Assembly, 8 January 2008, A/RES/62/61. Available at: https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/56/83 (accessed on June 15, 2020) .

United Nations (2003) Resolution 1456, S/RES/1456 (2003), Adopted by the Security Council, on 20 January 2003. Available at: https://www.undocs.org/S/RES/1456%20(2003) (accessed on June 15, 2020).

United Nations (2005) 2005 World Summit Outcome, General Assembly, Sixtieth Session, A/60/L.1, 16 September. Available at: https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/generalassembly/docs/globalcompact/A_RES_60_1.pdf (accessed on June 15, 2020).

United Nations (2014) Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee Adds Boko Haram to Its Sanctions, List SC/11410, 22 May. Available at https://www.un.org/press/en/2014/sc11410.doc.htm (accessed on March 16, 2020).

United Nations (2015) The 10th Meeting of the African Union–United Nations Joint Task Force on Peace and Security Addis Ababa, 1 February 2015 – Joint Communiqué. Available at: https://reliefweb.int/report/world/10th-meeting-african-union-united-nations-joint-task-force-peace-and-security-addis (accessed on June 15, 2020).

United Nations (2020), About the Counter-Terrorism Committee, Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee. Available at: https://www.un.org/sc/ctc/about-us/ (accessed on June 15, 2020).

Van Krieken, P (2011) Webster Leiden International Law Handbook, Rölling Foundation.

Vanguard (2020) 50 soldiers killed by Boko Haram. Vanguard Newspaper, 25 March. Available at: https://www.vanguardngr.com/2020/03/50-soldiers-killed-by-boko-haram-in-yobe/ (accessed on June 15, 2020).

Viotti, P. R. and  Kauppi, M. V. (2009) International relations and world politics: security, economy, identity. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Pearson Prentice Hall.

Weeraratne S (2017) Theorizing the Expansion of the Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria. Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 29(4): 610-634.

Wikan, V.S (2018) Is One Man’s Terrorist Another Man’s Freedom Fighter”?. E-International Relations Students. November 29. Available at: https://www.e-ir.info/2018/11/29/is-one-mans-terrorist-another-mans-freedom-fighter/ (accessed on June 15, 2020).

Yoo J C and  Ho J C. Ho (2003) International Law and the War on Terrorism. Yoo NYU Combatants.doc. Available at: https://www.law.berkeley.edu/files/yoonyucombatants.pdf (accessed on June 15, 2020).

Zenn, J (2020) Boko Haram’s Conquest for the Caliphate: How Al Qaeda Helped Islamic State Acquire Territory. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. 43(2): 89-122.

 

 

Creative Commons Licence
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.